Similarities and differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells
Prokaryotic cells do not have a membrane that binds other membrane bound cell organelles such as the nucleus and mitochondria. Eukaryotic cells, on the other hand, have membranes that bind other membrane bound cell organelles such as the nucleus and Golgi apparatus. In essence, prokaryotic cells don’t have membrane bound cell organelles while eukaryotic cells do.
Prokaryotic cells can only reproduce asexually while eukaryotic cells can reproduce both sexually through meiosis and asexually through mitosis.
Prokaryotic cells have the ability to obtain energy from both organic and inorganic compounds. On the other hand, eukaryotic cells only obtain energy through photosynthesis and other organic compounds.
Due to their ability to obtain energy from inorganic sources, prokaryotic cells have the ability to exist in extremely harsh conditions with regards to temperature, salinity and even radioactivity. Eukaryotic cells are mostly lacking in these abilities.
One contentious difference is that prokaryotic cells are older than the eukaryotic cells. In fact some arguments suggest eukaryotes developed from prokaryotic cells.
Prokaryotic cells are smaller in size compared to the larger eukaryotic cells.
One of the major similarities between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells is that they both produce protein through ribosomes which are found within their structures.