HEALTH CARE ISSUES in the UNITED STATES
The effects of behavior on health can be viewed with what type of behavior an individual exhibits in the different stages of life. An aging individual will exhibit behaviors which will impact on their health differently from behaviors exhibited by an adolescent. These behaviors will also differ among the male and females, for example an adolescent will highly likely exhibit high risk behavior at some point in their lives. This high risk behavior will affect their health, it has been reported that female adolescents are likely to exhibit certain behaviors more than their male counterparts and these include, engaging in behaviors related to suicide, during sexual activity they are most likely not going to use protection in the form of a condom and they are less likely going to engage in exercises or even consume vegetables and fruits.
The effects of economics and social structure on health can be explained with the effects of the American health system caused by the modern capitalism structure. This left employees bearing the brunt of an expanding economy this forced them to work in unhealthy environments which exposed them to industrial injuries without proper health care mechanisms in place. The economics and social structure did not give health care a chance for collective responsibility between an employer, employee and the government. Instead health was viewed as an individual responsibility and this in turn made its cost a burden more for the worker.
In the 1900s there was a push to reform the health care system by introducing universal health care in the United States after noticing that poor health and injuries created financial risks. This push was initially aimed at reducing the loss of income by workers but the cost of health services became a more significant risk in the 1930s. Employers also dealt with reduced productivity due to unhealthy working conditions and injuries to their workers, the medical practitioners could not guarantee payment from their patients and this created an unstable health care system. The American health care system has developed over the years to become a complicated system of public and private insurance, for the protection of its people.
Medical technology development has led to advancement to better diagnosis and even treatment of most of the ailments we suffer from, but the problem with this is that it has increased expenditure on medical care. Medical technology development requires innovation, research actual development of the technology and testing, all these go to increase the budget of medical care. This is due to the numerous marketers in this industry engaging in stiff competition towards capital-intensive devices.
The costs for development are also expensive, for example a research budget of 10 billion dollars was awarded to NIH in 1992, and AHCPR got outcome and medical services of just 120 million dollars. This only goes to show how costly medical technology development can get and even impact negatively on a country’s economy.
Among the racial groups, Asian and Hispanic populations have grown more than the other racial groups recently. The residence population has been increasing from 150 million people to 294 million this showing a 1% annual increase in population. This can be attributed to the rapid growth of a particular section of the adult population between 55 and 64 years. As this adult starts to exhibit health issues, they do not have an opportunity to enjoy what medical care system is offering the older generation above 65. This develops into a negative pattern where some of these adults suffer from chronic diseases coupled with poor access to medical care.
This increase in population and change in disease patterns and trends affect the health care system in the following ways, the increased population particularly from immigrants applies a lot of pressure on the health care system. Since health care is viewed as a collective responsibility, the system is required to offer medical services thus straining its resources since some of the immigrants and citizens are jobless and are languishing in poverty thus providing no input to the system.
The larger population belonging to the middle class in America is exposed to a disease trend associated with their lifestyles leading to an increase of non communicable diseases such as obesity. This has been a major challenge for the health care system since it’s an emerging trend due to increase of population belonging to the middle class. The number of people affected by this and are in need of medical attention is devastating this puts even more pressure on an unstable medical care system.
The life expectancy in 2003 for the whole population at birth reached an all time high of 77.6 years, up from 75.4 years in the 90s. The infant mortality rate was (6.9 infant deaths per 1000 live births same as the results in 2002 which was 0.1 higher. In 2002 the infant mortality rate rose this was attributed to the neonatal deaths which occurred in the first few weeks, due to an increase of infants born weighing 750grams and below.
Differences have been noted among the infant mortality rate of the different racial groups in America. Black mothers experienced the highest of infant mortality rate in 2002 and in 2003 the overall mortality rate was 30% higher for blacks than for whites.
Within the health service, management or managing the people one is required to; Agree with them precisely what it is you expect them to achieve, ensure both you and they are confident that they have the skills and resources to achieve it, give them feedback on whether they are achieving it.
This gives the person in charge an opportunity to engage with their team. Members would offer their opinions and this will help in coming up with clear goals about the task they are expected to achieve. The team will better understand their roles in the task this will go a long way in ensuring a successful outcome.
Some of the skills will come out as the task progresses, but matching the skills and expectations is paramount. Thus the team needs to have confidence in their abilities to achieve the task; they have to be aware of the resources available to them to do this.
Feedback is very important; every member of the team should know what goals have been met and which milestones have been achieved. This improves communication and ensures that everyone is on the right track.
Health services and management and organization involve the funding of the healthcare system. This is where the management ensures that all sectors of the system are well financed and are fully functional and can be done through loans. Health service purchasing this is the how funds are used to pay providers. Revenue collection, this is one of the most important parts of management because without proper control of the revenues one cannot guarantee continuity and eventually the system will collapse.